I was getting this error while trying to start the Office SharePoint Server Search service on a standalone dev machine that I was configuring. The machine was not a part of any domain so I would just enter the username for the search account without the domain name. To solve this error one needs to provide the MachineName\AccountName for the search account to use

If you get Exception from HRESULT: 0x80040D23 when clicking Search Setting

Operations -> Service on Server -> Stop the Office SharePoint Server Search  and restart. Enter all information for new service. Make sure the Authorized user have permission on the search database

Then go to Shared Service 1 ->Search Setting